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      合同四大特征的翻译处理

       2020-07-01 10:10:19
      点击:5

      1. 格式固定


      格式问题,一般原则是客从主人。应用文体的许多格式,都是沿用已久的,具有相对固定的含义,同业见之,照此办理,节省时间,没有必要标新立异。如英文外贸信函中的结尾套语,在大多数场合,使用“yours faithfully”或“yours sincerely”就足够了。合同的开头往往都十分相似的,比如:


      This contract is made and entered into this _ day of_,one thousand nine hundred_by and between _ Co.,at (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and_Co.,at_ (hereinafter referred to as Party B).


      本合同于19_年_月_日由_公司,地址:_(以下简称甲方)与_公司,地址:_(以下简称乙方)签订。


      2. 语体庄重


      应用文体,虽有平易化的趋势,但除少数体式外(如广告),总的说来,措辞简明、庄重,属于正式书面语体,翻译时应避免使用口语。酌情使用文言虚词及其他书面词语,往往可以起到言简意赅的效果,也可以改善长句的分、接问题。


      请看下面一些译例:


      1) We should appreciate a prompt reply.


      如蒙即复,不胜感激。


      2) On condition that you order more than 2,000 sets,we are prepared to offer a special price of US$ 9.10 per set, namely with 5% discount.


      如订购2,000套以上,我方准备特价报盘,每套9.10美元,即给予5%的折扣。


      3) This is to certify that the English translated copy attached hereto is in conformity with the Chinese original copy.


      兹证明所附的英文译本与中文正本内容相符。


      4) In reply to your inquiry of 25th March, we are pleased to offer you the following: 


      现函复贵方3月25日询价,并报盘如下:


      5) This Contract shall come into force from the date of execution hereof by the Buyer and the Builder.


      本合同自买方和建造方签约之日生效。


      6) According to the terms agreed upon, we have drawn on you at sight against shipment through Bank of China here. We would ask you to protect the draft upon presentation.


      根据双方协议条款,我们已向贵方开具这批船货的即期汇票,通过此处中国银行转去,请见票即付。

      在英文的法律文件和商贸信函中,有一套惯用的词语。这些词语,酌情使用时能给人一种正式文书的持重感。


      合同用语                 通常用语


      hereby (adv. )         by this means


      herein ( adv. )         in this


      hereof (adv. )         of, or concerning this


      hereto ( adv. )         to this


      herewith (adv. ) with this


      whereby (adv. ) by which


      7) The undersigned hereby certifies that the goods to be supplied are produced in Japan.


      下述签署人特此保证,所供货物在日本制造。


      8) Please find herein a list of chemicals available at present.


      附寄目前可供应的化工产品货单一纸,请查收。


      9) This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller,whereby the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the under-mentioned commodity according to the terms and conditions stipulated below.


      买卖双方同意按下列条款购买、出售下述商品,并签订本合同。


      10) In accordance with the stipulations of“The Law of the People's Republic of China on Joint Ventures Using Chinese and Foreign Investment”and other related laws and rules, and on the basis of equality and mutual benefit,_of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and_of_,both agree to establish a Joint Venture Enterprise with joint investment and hereby sign this contract.


      中国__公司与__国__公司遵照《中华人民共和国中外合资经营法》及有关法律的规定,本着平等互利的原则,同意共同投资兴办合资经营企业,兹签订本合同。


      应用文体,汉语和英语,其习语都各成系统。从上面的译例看,似乎汉语中的“兹”相当于英语中的“hereby”。事实上,在英汉互译中,这两个词并非能处处对号人座,其他的词更是如此。这些习语的使用,与其说是“句意”的要求,不如说是“文体”的要求。因此,根据各自语言表达的需要,有时可适当增译,如例3)增译了“兹”,例4)增译了“现”; 有时又宜省译,如例9)省译了“whereby”。


      3. 措辞婉约


      俗话说和气生财。”这是生意人的金科玉律。因此,英语外贸信函等应用文体,措辞十分讲究分寸、得体,避免刺激对方,即使是向对方抱怨,甚至索赔,也是彬彬有礼,十分婉转。


      请看下面的例子,注意划线部分:


      10) We wish to advise you that the relative L/C has been established.


      兹通知,有关信用证业已开出。


      11) I'm afraid we can't accept your counterbid.


      很抱歉,我们无法接受你方还盘。


      12) I'm afraid we can't come to terms if you won't give us 3% discount.


      如果不给3%的折扣,我们恐怕很难成交。


      13) We are looking forward to the pleasure of hearing from you again soon.


      盼早日收到你方回复。


      14) Your immediate attention would be appreciated.


      请即办理为荷。


      15) You must deliver the goods on board S. S. “East Wind”within the time limit as stipulated in our contract, otherwise dead freight, if any, should be bome by you. 


      你方必须按合同规定的期限将货装上“东风轮”,否则,空舱费将由你方负责。


      16) We are pleased to inform you that goods have been dispatched today.


      货物今日业巳启运,特此奉告。


      17) We are interested in discussing arts and crafts business with you.


      我们有意与你们洽谈工艺品业务。


      18) We are glad to learn from your letter of 21 October that you have decided to place a large order for a number of items included in our quotation of 11 October.


      从10月21日来函欣悉,贵公司决定按我公司10月11日报价单大量订购我公司 多种产品。


      19) We might say that our products are the very best on the market.


      顺便奉告,我方产品在市场上独占整头。


      20) We presume that there must be some reason for your having trouble with this article.


      此产品给你们带来麻烦,谅必事出有因。


      类似例子,举不胜举,希望引起注意。上面的译文,虽非“标准”答案,但仔细对照,我们可以悟出一些翻译原理。比如例1,如果逐词译出:“我们愿告诉你有关信用证已开出”,就会不伦不类,让人啼笑皆非。因此,在英汉互译时,遇上类似的语句,必须注意增减变通,以期与译语语体相吻合。


      4. 行文严谨 


      应用文体属记实性文体,行文准确、严谨是其一大特色。试看下面一段文章:


      付款条件:


      离岸价条款:


      a. 按合同规定卖方应在装运之前30天用电报或函件通知买方合同号码、品名、数量、价值、箱号、毛重、尺寸及可在发运港口交货,以便买方订舱。


      b. 卖方对运货船抵达后由于未能按期将货物运交装运港口而造成的误船或滞留装运应承担责任。


      c. 在货物装运之前,卖方应承担货物的全部费用与风险,而在货物装运之后,货物的全部费用则由买方承担。


      译文:


      Terms of payment :


      In case of FOB Terms


      a. The Seller shall, 30 days before the date of shipment stipulated in the contract, advise the Buyer by cable / letter of the Contract NO. , commodity, quantity, value, number of package, gross weight, measurement and the date of readiness at the port of shipment for the Buyer to book shipping space.


      b. The Seller shall be liable for any dead freight or demurrage (逾期费),should it happen that he has failed to have the commodity ready for loading after the carrying vessel has arrived at the port of shipment on time.


      c. The Seller shall bear all expenses, risks of the commodity before it passes over the vessel's rail and is released from the tackle. After it has passed over the vessel's rail and has been released from the tackle, all expenses of the commodity shall be for the Buyer's account.


      以上是一份“售购合同”付款条件的一部分,给人的感觉是:行文刻板、拘谨、单调,但条理清楚、措辞准确、滴水不漏。应用文体,大至国家法规,国际经济组织章程和文件,小至某项业务的合同、各类涉外公证书、信用证、提单等,都是具有法律效力的文件与单证。拟稿或翻译时稍有差错,往往导致贸易纠纷,造成经济损失,甚至带来不良的政治影响。 

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